One of our ancestors was a Cotton Planter and we know he travelled to the United States as we find him in the records of Ellis Island. His name was Eric Hugh Ferdinando and he is the son of George Samuel Ferdinando and Mabel Lilian Duke. Other Ferdinand (possible) relatives worked in the Mills and we can see their occupations listed in the previous page through the various Census of 1871 & 1881.
People use cotton in some form every day. In summer cotton clothes are worn because they are cool and easy to clean. For all seasons there are cotton towels, sheets, rugs, draperies, gloves, and countless other products that range from sewing thread to cooking oils. Despite the increasing use of synthetic fibres, such as rayon and nylon, cotton still provides the world with over half its textiles.
Millions of people in India, Egypt, and China wear cotton the year around. Even in the bitter winters of northern China most people wear cotton coats padded with cotton. As the days grow colder, they simply add another padded coat, saying it is "two-coat weather" or "three-coat weather."
Some 60 nations grow the cotton plant. In 1991 the chief producers were China, the United States, and the Soviet Union. Until shortly after World War II the Southern states grew almost no cash crop except cotton. Southern farmers were so dependent on it that it was called King Cotton and White Gold.
Today cotton is still the chief cash crop in the South, but many Southern farmers no longer put all their land into it. They rotate and diversify their crops. A vast new region, however, is now producing cotton--the Far West. Cotton farms still outnumber all others in the nation; and cotton ranks as one of the most valuable agricultural products, worth about 4 billion US dollars each year.
The parts of the nation where cotton is grown is called the cotton belt. At one time this meant only the Southern states east of the Mississippi River. Today the belt stretches across the southern United States from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific.
The belt has four great regions:
The states that grow small amounts of cotton include Florida, Nevada, and Virginia.
Cotton is a warm-climate crop. To develop fully, the plant usually needs a growing season of 150 days free from frost. The cotton planting season ranges from February 1 in southern Texas to early June in northern parts of the belt. To get warmth from the sun, the seeds are planted shallowly, from one to two inches deep. Some farmers plant their seed in hills, some in furrows, and others in flat seed beds.
Growing methods vary with regions. In the semi-arid Southwest and Far West cotton is irrigated. The dry, level plains and valleys there are suitable for heavy power machinery, and so planters profitably work very large farms that are highly mechanized. Most of their planting, cultivating, and harvesting is done with machinery.
Elsewhere in the cotton belt, fields are usually smaller, fenced, and ditched for drainage, and much of the work may be done by hand. Some planters, however, have rebuilt their fields and cooperatively buy power machinery.
Mechanized planters have steadily increased, but in the South there are still mule-drawn planters. As young cotton plants are weak, the seed is sown thickly so the early plants can support each other. When the plants are from 3 to 5 inches tall, they are thinned. On many farms men and women, and even children, trudge up and down the rows to chop out plants with hoes. This is chopping. On mechanized farms planters use machines with rotary knives or flamethrowers. As the plants grow, workers must cultivate to reduce weeds and grass.
Some farmers cultivate the cotton crop eight or nine times. The use of machine-power cultivators is increasing. Some planters chemically treat the soil to control or reduce weeds.
To control insect pests, especially the dreaded boll weevil, the plants must be sprayed. Many farmers employ airplanes to dust the plants, as one plane can treat as many as 1,500 acres a day.
About two months after planting, when the plant is about a foot high, it blossoms. Each bloom is creamy white. After a day it changes to red. That night or the next day the red petals fall, leaving a flattened green pod. This is the cotton boll.
The boll takes from 45 to 60 days to mature into an egg-shaped pod about an inch in diameter and from an inch to an inch and a half long. Inside are from three to five compartments, depending upon the cotton variety, each with from seven to ten seeds--each seed sprouting about 10,000 fibres. When the boll splits, out bursts the fluffy white mass of fibres--cotton.
The cotton plant, however, does not ripen all at one time. Blossoms and open bolls may be seen on the same plant. This is because the branches with leaves shade the lower part of the plant. To speed ripening, many farmers defoliate the plant in the growing season--they use chemicals to make the leaves fall.
At harvest time, some cotton plants are three to four feet high. Some varieties, especially in the dry Western lands, are much shorter and pickers must stoop or crawl along the rows. Starting in the southernmost part of the belt, harvesting begins in July and lasts, in the northernmost part, into December.
Today more than 95 percent of the cotton crop is harvested by machine. The two types of mechanical harvesters are the cotton picker and the cotton stripper. The picker pulls the cotton from the boll. The stripper slices the bolls and many of the leaves from the stalk. A one-row stripper can harvest 500 pounds or more of cotton an hour; a man can pick only about 15 pounds an hour. Strippers operate well under various conditions but are used chiefly in the Southwest.
Some cotton in the South is still harvested by hand. There, fields are usually picked three times. Crews of pickers either pluck the cotton cleanly from the boll or hand snap it--wrenching off the entire boll, husk and all. Snapping is much faster than plucking. However, it produces cotton "trashy" with leaves, stems, and bits of burr.
Pickers are paid by the 100 pounds. Skilled, fast adults can pick about 300 pounds a day; but most adults pluck less than 200 pounds daily. Wages vary, depending upon economic conditions, the market price of cotton, and labour supply. Before World War I pickers got as little as 40 cents per 100 pounds. During World War II some were paid as high as $5 US. Later the price dropped to about $2, then fluctuated. Many farmers say the cost of handpicking is about one fourth the value of the cotton crop.
Today more and more Southern cotton farms are being operated by their owners or by managers. They hire their labour. Many, however, are still operated by tenant farmers, who share the crop with the owners.
The tenant farmers are chiefly either share-tenants or sharecroppers. The share-tenant provides labour, tools, animals, feed, seed, and fertilizer. He pays the owner from a fourth to a third of the crop. The sharecropper is too poor to own equipment. He can supply only his own labour and borrows the equipment from the owner or credit merchant at interest. He gives half the crop to the owner.
To aid sharecroppers and share-tenants, Congress enacted the Farm Tenant Act of 1937 and the Farmers Home Administration Act of 1946. These provide loans to help tenant farmers buy their own land.
Before cotton can be used, the fibres must be separated from the seeds. Done by hand, it takes a day to get a pound. It was done this way until Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin in 1793.
Cotton Seed and Fibres
A Cotton Gin
Today in motor-driven gins, hook-tooth saws tear the fibres from the seeds. The free fibres, called lint, are sucked away to a press box. The seeds are saved--some for seeding next year's crop, others to make products worth millions of dollars a year. Crushing mills squeeze from them tons of oil for a variety of products, including cooking and salad oils, soap, margarine, and cosmetics. Products from the crushed seeds include linoleum, putty, cattle feed, insulation, medicines, and fertiliser. Even linters, the fuzz that clings to the seeds after ginning, are saved. They are used for such varied articles as X-ray films, plastics, guncotton, and padding for mattresses and furniture.
The cotton fibres are pressed into bales, each weighing 480 pounds net and 500 pounds when wrapped in bagging and bound with wire or steel strips. Each bale is classed in one of the seven basic grades set by the federal government for colour and brightness, from white to grey. Fibre length and fineness are also classed. Official spot markets are Greenville, S.C.; Montgomery, Alabama.; Greenwood, Mississippi.; Memphis, Tennessee.; Dallas and Lubbock, Texas.; Phoenix, Arizona.; and Fresno, California. The principal futures market is located in New York City.
The world's yearly cotton crop ranges from 60 to 80 million bales. In 1991 China led the market with more than 20 percent of the world production. Next in rank were the United States and the Soviet Union. Other major growers included India and Pakistan.
More than half the cotton consumed in the United States is used for clothing; 29 percent and 12 percent in household items and for industrial goods, respectively. Southern mills once made more than 80 percent of the cotton woven goods produced in the United States. With raw material near at hand and with cheaper labour, they surpassed the mills of New England. In 1990 the chief cotton-manufacturing states were Texas, California, Mississippi, and Louisiana.
At the mill, workers open the bales and loosen the fibres. Picking machines clean the blended cotton and make it into rolls, or laps. In the carding machine a cylinder with wire points straightens the tangled fibres into a thin web. This is drawn through a funnel, which moulds it into a sliver, a rope like strand about as thick as one's finger. For high quality yarn, the sliver is combed to remove short fibres.
A drawing frame draws out six slivers and combines them into a single strand about the size of the original sliver. A roving frame slightly twists and further draws out the cotton into a thinner strand. The rovings go to a spinning machine, which repeatedly draws out and twists them into yarns of desired size and winds them on bobbins for weaving.
The yarn that runs lengthwise in a fabric is the warp. The crosswise yarn is the filling, or weft. The warp, which takes the strain, is given more twist.
In a weaving loom the ends of the warp yarn are fastened to a roller. For weaving plain fabrics, every other warp thread is lifted, all at once, while the odd threads--first, third, fifth, and so on--are lowered. A shuttle drives the weft threads between the warp threads. Then the upper threads come down and the lower ones go up, and the shuttle drives back again. On one journey the shuttle lays the weft threads under the odd warp threads and over the even ones. On the way back, this is reversed. The shuttle can make 200 or more trips a minute. The woven cotton is called grey goods. Most mills sell the grey goods to converters, who prepare it for the market. (See Weaving)
Among the many processes in finishing are bleaching, dyeing, preshrinking, and printing. The finished cloth comes as more than 120 different fabrics, ranging from denim and duck to batiste and chambray. Special finishes include glazed chintz, crepe, water repellency, washable wall covering, and mercerisation.
Cotton is also knitted. Great machines turn out vast quantities of cotton underwear, sportswear, and socks. Some cotton is also pressed into a web and bonded together into cheap, paper like fabrics.
The use of cotton goes back beyond the records of history. As early as 3000BC cotton was grown and used in the Indus Valley of India. Ancient Egypt and China also spun and wove it.
In the Middle Ages, the Arabs brought the cotton plant from India and Spain. They called it qutun, from which comes the name cotton. By the 11th century, traders brought to Europe the filmy muslins of the East, though growers of wool and flax tried to keep them out. The name muslin comes from Mosul, once a great cotton manufacturing city.
The earliest explorers of the New World saw cotton growing in the West Indies. Cortez found the Aztecs skilled in spinning, weaving, and dyeing. Ancient mummies in Peru were wrapped in native cotton.
As early as 1607, planters in the South raised cotton, but handpicking the lint from the seed took so much labour that there was little profit. Then, in 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. This revolutionized Southern farming.
Planters turned from tobacco and rice to cotton. To supply the growing demands of mill owners in England and New England, they imported more slaves to work the cotton fields. The number soared from about 700,000 in 1793 to nearly 4,000,000 by 1860. Plantations sprang up in Alabama, Mississippi, Missouri, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Arkansas. By spreading slavery in the South, cotton helped bring on the Civil War.
Before World War I the United States exported half of its cotton crop. Foreign production has increased, but exports still account for 40 percent. Imports are small. They consist chiefly of strong, brownish Egyptian cotton for thread and rough Chinese fibres for mixing with wool for rugs and blankets.
The single cotton fibre is a flattened, twisted tube. The twist helps the fibres interlock, when spun, into strong threads. The plant belongs to the mallow family. It is a perennial and, in its wild state, may grow up to 15 feet high. Cultivated, however, the seeds are planted each year to check pests and to keep the character of the fibre constant.
The many kinds of cotton fall into five general classes. Sea-island cotton (Gossypium barbadense), a native of tropical America, has the longest fibres, from 1½ to 2 inches. Very little is now grown in the United States, but some is produced in Puerto Rico and in the Windward and Leeward islands. Egyptian cotton is related to sea-island cotton, with fibres from 1 ¼ to 1 ¾ inches long. A similar variety, Pima, is grown in Arizona. Most of the United States crop and about half the world crop is upland short-staple cotton (G. hirsutum), with staples from 5/8 to 1 inch long.
Upland long-staple cotton, grown chiefly in the United States, is from 1 ⅛ to 1¾ inches long. Asian cottons have strong, rather rough, short staples, often only ⅜ to ¾ inch long. They are being replaced in some Asian countries by the American upland type because of its better quality. The scientific names are G. herbaceum, G. indicum, G. arboreum. Peruvian cotton (G. peruvianum) has a wiry lint that mixes well with wool. Brazilian, or kidney, cotton (G. braziliense) has seeds that grow in a kidney-shaped mass. Its staple is from 1 to 1 ¼ inches.
Within the classes are many varieties. Some ripen early; some resist wilt; others resist storms. To keep the quality constant and make ginning more efficient, many planters join in a "one-variety community," all growing the same variety.